There are differences between adult sleep apnea and pediatric sleep apnea. Adults usually have daytime sleepiness, while children are more likely to have behavioral problems. The underlying cause in adults is often obesity; in children, the most common underlying condition is enlargement of the adenoids and tonsils. However, obesity also plays a role in children. Other underlying factors can be craniofacial anomalies and neuromuscular disorders. Pediatric sleep disorders increasingly interfere with daily patient and family functioning. Interest in and treatment of sleep disturbances in youth continues to grow, but research lags. One survey indicated that pediatricians were more likely to prescribe antidepressant medications for insomnia than psychiatrists. Further investigation is needed to develop fact-based diagnosis and treatment of pediatric sleep disorders.