Sleep in the pediatric population is ever-changing with sleep-specific characteristics and behaviors constantly changing as the child grows. In order to properly treat pediatric patients, sleep technologists need to have a thorough understanding of the stages of sleep development and know the signs of abnormal sleep behaviors.
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Knowing how to properly score a polysomnogram (PSG) is a must for the sleep technologist, and understanding pediatric and infant scoring rules is crucial for those who work with this population as sleep issues can greatly impact growth and overall health as infants and children age into adulthood.
Sleep plays a critical role in the early stages of development in children. It is important to focus not only on the quantity of sleep received but also the quality. While the methods of measuring and evaluating sleep quality are similar to that of adults, there are differences that sleep technologists must consider when testing pediatric patients.
This is part three in the "For the Newbie" series. Click to view part one and part two.
On Dec. 31, 2019, the Municipal Health Commission of Wuhan, China, reported a cluster of cases of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology. On Jan. 12, China publicly shared the genetic sequence of the virus that caused the novel pneumonia. On Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced the official name for the disease: coronavirus disease 2019, commonly shortened to COVID-19. Shortly thereafter, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses officially named the virus causing COVID-19 as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (abbreviated SARS-CoV-2).
For some of us, it is the season of building budgets for the next fiscal year, depending on when your fiscal year begins. Whether you are new to the role of creating a budget or an old hat, I hope this primer will be helpful.
In late 2020, free-standing and hospital-based sleep centers began receiving communications from Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs) asking for attestations that they were in compliance with their local coverage determinations (LCDs) for polysomnography. LCDs are decisions made by a MAC whether to cover a particular item or service in their jurisdiction (region). MACs are contracted by Medicare to develop LCDs and process Medicare claims. The MAC’s decision is based on whether the service or item is considered reasonable and necessary. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) awards geographical jurisdictions to MACS (private health care insurers). National coverage determinations (NCDs) supersede LCDs, but LCDs provide expansion on coverage policies for each jurisdiction. Coverage policies vary among LCDs related to coding, credentialing, diagnostic testing and treatment. This means that Medicare coverage can also vary depending on the geographical location. LCD contractors must follow a specified procedure to issue an LCD, including holding public meetings to discuss a draft LCD, distributing it to medical groups, posting it on their website and offering a 45-day period for public comments (posted on their websites prior to finalizing the LCD).
As we see some light at the end of the tunnel with the U.S. advancing the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines, we also are seeing many school districts having students return to in-person or hybrid learning. The debate around what time school should start has always been a point of discussion for sleep professionals, physicians and parents.