Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects an estimated 7–10 percent of the general population. The prevalence of RLS is greater in patients with diabetes than in people without diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy (i.e., pathological changes in the peripheral nerves) has been implicated as a risk factor for RLS in diabetic patients. To what extent and how diabetic neuropathy contributes to RLS is unclear. Recent investigations into the relationship between RLS and diabetes have revealed some interesting findings.